Enrofloxacin is a synthetic, broad spectrum antimicrobial substance, belonging to the fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics. ATC Vet Code: QJ01MA90.
Enrofloxacin is bactericidal in action with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and mycoplasmas. The mechanism of action of the quinolones is unique among antimicrobials – they act primarily to inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme responsible for controlling the supercoiling of bacterial DNA during replication. Resealing of the double standard helix is inhibited resulting in irreversible degradation of the chromosomal DNA. The fluoroquinolones also possess activity against bacteria in the stationary phase by an alteration of the permeability of the outer membrane phospholipid cell wall.
The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin are such that oral and parenteral administration lead to similar serum levels. Enrofloxacin possesses a high distribution volume. Tissue levels 2–3 times higher than that found in the serum have been demonstrated in laboratory animals and target species. Organs in which high levels can be expected are the lungs, liver, kidney, skin, bone, and lymphatic system. Enrofloxacin also distributes into the cerebrospinal fluid, the aqueous humour, and the foetus in pregnant animals.