Chickens (future breeders and future layer hens), turkey breeders and turkeys for meat production and ducks for meat production.
Indications for use, specifying the target species
Chickens (future breeders and future layer hens):
For active immunisation of healthy and susceptible chickens to reduce faecal excretion and colonisation of internal organs with Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium field strains and to reduce colonisation of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis field strains.
Onset of immunity: 15 days
Duration of immunity: 52 weeks against virulent S. Enteritidis and 46 weeks against virulent S. Typhimurium from the time of the last vaccination when used according to the recommended vaccination schedule.
Turkey breeders and turkeys for meat production:
For active immunisation of healthy and susceptible turkeys to reduce colonisation of internal organs with Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium field strains.
In general, the colonisation of internal organs of vaccinated turkeys with challenge bacteria is reduced compared to unvaccinated turkeys; a statistically significant reduction could not be shown in all instances.
Onset of immunity: 21 days after first vaccination
Duration of immunity:
for future breeders: 30 weeks against virulent Salmonella Enteritidis and 28 weeks against virulent Salmonella Typhimurium from the time of the last vaccination when used according to the recommended vaccination schedule.
for turkeys for meat production: 10 weeks against virulent Salmonella Enteritidis and against virulent Salmonella Typhimurium from the time of the last vaccination when used according to the recommended vaccination schedule.
Ducks for meat production:
For active immunisation of healthy and susceptible ducks to reduce colonisation of internal organs with Salmonella Typhimurium field strains.
Onset of immunity: 22 days
Duration of immunity: 43 days
Do not use in sick birds.
Special warnings for each target species
Ensure that the drinking water is free of detergents, disinfectants and acids.
Not tested on ornamental and pure-bred poultry.
In chickens, protection in the presence of maternally derived antibodies has been shown with a vaccine containing Salmonella Enteriditis but no information is available on the Salmonella Typhimurium component.
In turkeys, the influence of maternally derived antibodies was not studied.
The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in commercial turkey holdings can vary widely amongst the European Union Member States. The vaccine should only be used on turkey farms with known occurrence of Salmonella Enteritidis or Salmonella Typhimurium unless national Salmonella control programs in European Union Member States promote control measures such as vaccination.
In ducks, the maternally derived antibodies may have an impact on the development of the immune response.
Special precautions for use
i) Special precautions for use in animals
Vaccinated chickens may excrete the S. Enteritidis vaccine strain up to 21 days and the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain up to 35 days following vaccination.
Vaccinated ducks may excrete the S. Enteritidis vaccine strain up to 14 days and the S. Typhimurium vaccine strain up to 28 days following vaccination.
Shedding of Salmonella vaccine strains in turkeys is intermittent. After vaccinated once at the first day of life, duration of excretion was observed for the Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine strain up to day 49 and for the Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain up to day 63. After repeated vaccinations duration of excretion is shortened. Due to limited data the eggs of vaccinated turkey breeders are not intended for human consumption.
The vaccine can spread to susceptible birds in contact with vaccinated birds.
On very rare occasions, the vaccine strains may be isolated from the environment beyond the above mentioned period when using very sensitive detection methods.
The vaccine strains are highly sensitive to fluoroquinolone antibiotics and have increased sensitivity to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, detergents and environmental noxae.
The differentiation between the vaccine and field strains is achieved by means of an antibiogram:
In contrast to field strains, the vaccine strain is sensitive to erythromycin (recommended concentration 15-30 µg/ml) and resistant to streptomycin (recommended concentration 200 µg/ml) and rifampicin (recommended concentration 200 µg/ml).
In contrast to field strains, the vaccine strain is sensitive to erythromycin (recommended concentration 15-30 µg/ml) and resistant to nalidixic acid (recommended concentration 20 µg/ml) and rifampicin (recommended concentration 200 µg/ml).
Depending on the test system used, oral vaccination may result in low seropositive reactions of individual birds in a flock. Since the serological monitoring of Salmonella is only a flock test, positive findings have to be confirmed, e.g. by bacteriology.
ii) Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals
Personal protective equipment consisting of gloves should be worn when handling the veterinary medicinal product.
Open the vial only under water to avoid aerosols.
Wash and disinfect hands after handling the vaccine.
Do not ingest. In case of accidental ingestion, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician.
The vaccine strains are sensitive to a number of antibiotics including quinolones (ciprofloxacin).
Since the vaccine has been prepared with live, attenuated microorganisms, appropriate measures should be taken to prevent contamination of the handler and other people that collaborate in the process.
Vaccinated animals may excrete the vaccine strains. Immunocompromised persons are advised to avoid contact with the vaccine and recently vaccinated animals.
The veterinary medicinal product should not be administered by pregnant women.
Personnel involved in attending vaccinated animals should follow general hygiene principals (changing clothes, wearing gloves, cleaning and disinfection of boots) and take particular care in handling litter from vaccinated chickens until 35 days after vaccination, from vaccinated ducks until 28 days after vaccination and from vaccinated turkeys until 63 days after vaccination.
Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
Do not use in chickens in lay and within 3 weeks before the onset of the laying period.
Do not use in ducks intended for lay.
Do not use in turkeys in lay and within 5 weeks before the onset of the laying period.
Since the vaccine strain is a live bacterium, simultaneous use of chemotherapeutics which are effective against Salmonella should be avoided. However, if this is inevitable, the flock must be re-immunised. A decision to use this vaccine before or after any chemotherapeutic treatment needs to be taken on a case by case basis.
No information is available on the safety and efficacy of this vaccine when used with other veterinary medical product. A decision to use this vaccine before or after any other veterinary medicinal product therefor needs to be made on a case by case basis.
Amounts to be administered and administration route
For oral use after resuspension in drinking water.
Advice on correct administration:
The contents of opened bottles should be used completely.
Prepare only the amounts of the vaccine that will be used within 4 hours.
Protect the reconstituted vaccine from direct sunlight, frost and temperatures above 25°C. Follow these instructions for correct administration, so that all birds receive the appropriate dose.
AviPro SALMONELLA DUO may be used from the 1st day of life.
Ducks for meat production: A single dose from first day of life.
Chickens (future breeders and future layer hens): A single dose from first day of life followed by a second vaccination at an age of 6 to 8 weeks and a third vaccination around the 16th week of life at least 3 weeks before onset of lay.
Turkeys for meat production: A single dose from the first day of life followed by a second vaccination at an age of 6 weeks.
Turkey breeders: A single dose from the first day of life followed by a second vaccination at an age of 6 weeks, a third vaccination at an age of 16 weeks and a fourth vaccination at an age of 23-24 weeks.
Administration via the drinking water
1. Determination of the required amount of water:
Ideally the vaccine should be administered in the volume of water consumed by the birds within 3 hours. Use water meter recording for the previous day to accurately determine the correct quantity of water in each case. Alternatively, the amount of water needed can be calculated out of the number and age of birds combined with the information given in the water consumption tables from the breeding companies.
Under hot climatic conditions and in heavy breeds or species other than chickens, especially in the case of older turkeys, this amount might need to be increased to ensure sufficient water uptake of each bird.
2. Resuspension of the lyophilisate:
The whole content of a vial should be used for one house or drinking system as splitting may lead to dosing errors.
All equipment used for the vaccination (pipes, hoses, tubes, etc.) should be thoroughly cleaned and free of detergent and disinfectant residues.
Use only cool, clean and fresh water, preferably free of chlorine and metal ions. Skimmed milk powder (<1% fat) (2-4 grams per litre of water) or skimmed milk (20-40 ml per litre of water) can improve the quality of tap water and thus the stability of the vaccine. However, this has to be done at least 10 minutes prior to adding the vaccine.
Open the vaccine vial under water and dissolve thoroughly. As the concentrated vaccine is slightly viscous, care should be taken to empty the ampoule and its top completely by rinsing them in water. Vaccine solution must be stirred thoroughly for several minutes before administration.
Application of the resuspended vaccine:
Allow water in the drinkers to be consumed so that levels prior to vaccine applications are minimal. If water is still present, the lines must be drained before applying the vaccine.
Apply vaccine over (up to) 3 hours, ensuring that all birds drink during this time. Due to the varying drinking behaviour of chickens, it might be necessary to withhold water on some sites prior to vaccination in order to ensure that all birds drink during the vaccination period.
A period of thirst of up to 2-3 hours before vaccination might be necessary to ensure that every bird receives a vaccine dose.
Make sure that birds do not have access to plain (vaccine free) water during vaccination.
No adverse reactions are known after an overdose.
For chicken and ducks: meat, offal and eggs: 21 days.
For turkeys: meat and offal: 70 days after the first vaccination, 49 days after repeated vaccination.