Indications for use
For active immunisation of healthy susceptible, immune competent chickens to reduce mortality, colonisation, invasion and faecal excretion due to Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 4.
Immunity develops within 14 days of vaccination and remains for 6 to 8 weeks following a single dose and for 60 weeks following the 3 dose programme.
Do not vaccinate sick birds. Do not vaccinate birds in lay. Vaccination of birds intended as laying birds must be completed 3 weeks before point of lay.
Special warnings for each target species
The vaccine strain may spread to susceptible birds in contact with vaccinates. Studies have shown that vaccinated birds shed the vaccine strain for up to 16 days.
Special precautions for use
i) Special precautions for use in animals
The vaccine strain is supersensitive to quinolone antibiotics and has increased sensitivity to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, detergents and environmental noxae.
The differentiation between vaccine and field strains is done by means of an antibiogramme. In contrast to field strains, vaccine strains are sensitive to erythromycin (recommended concentration 15-30 µg/ml) and resistant to streptomycin and rifampicin (recommended concentration 200 µg/ml).
The presence of maternal antibodies to Salmonella Enteritidis may reduce the effect of vaccination over the first 4 days of life.
Depending on the test system used, oral vaccination may result in low seropositive reactions of individual birds in a flock. Since serological Salmonella monitoring is a flock test only, positive findings have to be confirmed, e.g. by bacteriology.
ii)Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals
Use gloves when reconstituting the vaccine. Open vial under water to avoid aerosols. Disinfect and wash hands after handling vaccine. Do not ingest. If the vaccine has been swallowed seek medical advice. The vaccine strain is sensitive to a number of antibiotics including quinolones (ciprofloxacin).
Care should be taken to wash and disinfect hands after handling poultry faeces, particularly in the first 7 days after vaccination of birds.
Operators should not handle vaccine if known to be suffering from immunosuppressive disease.
Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
The vaccination of birds intended as layers should be completed 3 weeks before point of lay.
Antibacterials shall not be administered 3 days before and after immunization.
If antibiotic treatment is inevitable, the respective animals must be re-immunized, however, not earlier than three days after this treatment.
Day old chicks may be vaccinated with AviPro Salmonella vac E by the oral route and Marek's vaccine (both turkey herpes and Rispens) by injection.
AviPro Salmonella vac E may be administered on the same day as AviPro Salmonella vac T, but not simultaneously.
Amounts to be administered and administration route
Dosage and use:
One dose should be administered per animal.
The vaccine may be used as from the 1st day of life.
Recommended vaccination scheme:
Broiler:For birds up to 6 weeks of age, a single dose at one day of age.
Layers and Breeders: A single dose from one day of age followed by a second vaccination at 6 to 8 weeks of age and a third vaccination at 16-18 weeks at least 3 weeks before point of lay.
1. Make sure that all conduit pipes, tubing, troughs, drinkers etc. are thoroughly clean and free of any trace of disinfectants, detergents, soap etc.
2. Open the vaccine ampoule under water and dissolve thoroughly. As the concentrated vaccine is slightly viscous, care should be taken to empty the ampoule and its top completely by rinsing them in water.
3. Then thoroughly dissolve in a 1 litre jug and stir well before mixing with more water in a 10 litre bucket before application. Vaccine must be stirred thoroughly for several minutes at each stage. Do not split large vials to vaccinate more than 1 house or drinking system, as this leads to mixing errors.
4. As a guide apply diluted vaccine to cold and fresh water at the rate of 1 liter of water per 1,000 birds per day of age e.g. 10 litres would be needed for 1,000 10 day old chickens. Use water meter recordings for the previous day to accurately determine the correct quantity of water in each case. Low-fat skimmed milk powder (i.e.<1 % fat) should be added to the water (2-4 grams per liter) or skimmed milk (20-40 ml per litre of water) to increase the stability of the vaccine. All tubing should be emptied of plain water, so that the drinkers contain only vaccine water.
5. Allow water in the drinkers to be consumed so that levels prior to vaccine applications are minimal. If water is still present the lines must be drained before applying the vaccine. The vaccine treated water should be used within 4 hours. It should be ensured that all birds drink during this period. Birds drinking behavior varies. It may be necessary to withhold drinking water on some sites prior to vaccination in order to ensure that all birds drink during the vaccination period. The aim is to give every bird one dose of vaccine. A period of thirst of up to 2-3 hours before vaccination may be necessary to achieve this.
After application of the 10-fold dose there were no side-effects.