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Date: Thursday, June 13, 2024 17:35

Release 7.227
Draxxin 100 mg/ml solution for injection for cattle, pigs & sheep
 
Species: Cattle, Pigs, Sheep
Therapeutic indication: Pharmaceuticals: Antimicrobials: Injections
Active ingredient: Tulathromycin
Product:Draxxin® 100 mg/ml Solution for Injection
Product index: Draxxin 100 mg/ml Solution for Injection
Cattle - meat: 22 days
Sheep - meat: 16 days
Pig - meat: 13 days
Withdrawal notes: Do not use in lactating cattle producing milk for human consumption. Do not use in pregnant cows or heifers, which are intended to produce milk for human consumption, within 2 months of expected parturition.
Incorporating:
Presentation
A clear aqueous ready to use solution containing tulathromycin 100 mg/ml.
Uses
Cattle
Treatment and metaphylaxis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis and Histophilus somni sensitive to tulathromycin. The presence of the disease in the herd should be established before metaphylactic treatment.
Treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) associated with Moraxella bovis sensitive to tulathromycin.
Pigs
Treatment and metaphylaxis of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Bordetella bronchiseptica sensitive to tulathromycin. The presence of the disease in the herd should be established before metaphylactic treatment. Draxxin should only be used if pigs are expected to develop the disease within 2-3 days.
Sheep
Treatment of the early stages of infectious pododermatitis (foot rot) associated with virulent Dichelobacter nodosus requiring systemic treatment.
Dosage and administration
Cattle
A single subcutaneous injection of 2.5 mg tulathromycin/kg bodyweight (equivalent to 1 ml/40 kg body weight). For treatment of cattle over 300 kg bodyweight, divide the dose so that no more than 7.5 ml are injected at one site.
Pigs
A single intramuscular injection of 2.5 mg tulathromycin/kg bodyweight (equivalent to 1 ml/40 kg bodyweight) in the neck. For treatment of pigs over 80 kg bodyweight, divide the dose so that no more than 2 ml are injected at one site.
For any respiratory disease, it is recommended to treat animals in the early stages of the disease and to evaluate the response to treatment within 48 hours after injection. If clinical signs of respiratory disease persist or increase, or if relapse occurs, treatment should be changed, using another antibiotic, and continued until clinical signs have resolved.
Sheep
A single intramuscular injection of 2.5 mg tulathromycin/kg bodyweight (equivalent to 1 ml/40 kg bodyweight) in the neck.
To ensure correct dosage bodyweight should be determined as accurately as possible to avoid underdosing. For multiple vial entry, an aspirating needle or multi-dose syringe is recommended to avoid excessive broaching of the stopper.
Contra-indications, warnings, etc
Do not use in cases of hypersensitivity to macrolide antibiotics or to any of the excipients.
Do not administer simultaneously antimicrobials with a similar mode of action such as other macrolides or lincosamides.
In the absence of compatibility studies, do not mix with other veterinary medicinal products.
Withdrawal periods
Cattle (meat and offal):
22 days
Pig (meat and offal):
13 days
Sheep (meat and offal):
16 days
Do not use in lactating animals producing milk for human consumption.
Do not use in pregnant animals, which are intended to produce milk for human consumption, within 2 months of expected parturition.
Subcutaneous administration of Draxxin to cattle very commonly causes transient pain reactions and local swellings at the injection site that can persist for up to 30 days. No such reactions have been observed in pigs and sheep after intramuscular administration. Pathomorphological injection site reactions (including reversible changes of congestion, oedema, fibrosis and haemorrhage) are very common for approximately 30 days after injection in cattle and pigs.
In sheep, transient signs of discomfort (head shaking, rubbing injection site, backing away) are very common after intramuscular injection. These signs resolve within a few minutes.
If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs appropriate treatment should be administered without delay.
The frequency of adverse reactions is defined using the following convention:
-very common (more than 1 in 10 animals displaying adverse reaction(s) during the course of one treatment)
-common (more than 1 but less than 10 animals in 100 animals)
-uncommon (more than 1 but less than 10 animals in 1,000 animals)
-rare (more than 1 but less than 10 animals in 10,000 animals)
-very rare (less than 1 animal in 10,000 animals, including isolated reports).
Use of the product should be based on susceptibility testing of the bacteria isolated from the animal. If this is not possible, therapy should be based on local (regional, farm level) epidemiological information about susceptibility of the target bacteria.
Official, national and regional antimicrobial policies should be taken into account when the product is used. Cross resistance occurs with other macrolides. Use of the product deviating from the instructions given in the SPC may increase the prevalence of bacteria resistant to tulathromycin and may decrease the effectiveness of treatment with other macrolides, lincosamides and group B streptogramins, due to the potential for cross resistance.
Laboratory studies in rats and rabbits have not produced any evidence of teratogenic, foetotoxic or maternotoxic effects. The safety of tulathromycin has not been established during pregnancy and lactation. Use only according to the benefit/risk assessment by the responsible veterinarian.
In cattle at dosages of 3, 5 or 10 times the recommended dose, transient signs attributed to injection site discomfort were observed and included restlessness, head-shaking, pawing the ground, and brief decrease in feed intake. Mild myocardial degeneration has been observed in cattle receiving 5-6 times the recommended dose. In young pigs weighing approximately 10 kg given 3 or 5 times the therapeutic dose, transient signs attributed to injection site discomfort were observed and included excessive vocalisation and restlessness. Lameness was also observed when the hind leg was used as the injection site.
In lambs (approx. 6 weeks old) at dosages of 3 or 5 times the recommended dose, transient signs attributed to injection site discomfort were observed, and included walking backwards, head shaking, rubbing the injection site, lying down and getting up, and bleating.
The efficacy of antimicrobial treatment of foot rot in sheep might be reduced by other factors, such as wet environmental conditions, as well as inappropriate farm management. Treatment of foot rot should therefore be undertaken along with other flock management tools, for example providing dry environment.
Antibiotic treatment of benign foot rot is not considered appropriate. Draxxin showed limited efficacy in sheep with severe clinical signs or chronic foot rot, and should therefore only be given at an early stage of foot rot.
For the user
Wash hands after use.
Tulathromycin is irritating to eyes. In case of accidental eye exposure occurs, flush the eyes immediately with clean water.
Tulathromycin may cause sensitisation by skin contact resulting in eg reddening of the skin (erythema) and/or dermatitis. In case of accidental spillage onto skin, wash the skin immediately with soap and water.
In case of accidental self-injection, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician.
If there is suspicion of a hypersensitivity reaction following accidental exposure (recognised by e.g. itching, difficulty in breathing, hives, swelling on the face, nausea, vomitus) appropriate treatment should be administered. Seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician.
Pharmaceutical precautions
No special precautions for storage.
Shelf life after first opening the immediate packaging: 28 days.
Keep out of the sight and reach of children.
Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such veterinary medicinal product should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
For animal treatment only.
Legal category
Legal category: POM-V
Packaging quantities
Clear glass vials containing 20 ml, 50 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml and 500 ml. The 500 ml vials must not be used for pigs and sheep. Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Further information
Tulathromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antimicrobial agent, which originates from a fermentation product. It differs from many other macrolides in that it has a long duration of action that is, in part, due to its three amine groups; therefore it has been given the chemical subclass designation of triamilide.
Macrolides are bacteriostatic acting antibiotics and inhibit essential protein biosynthesis by virtue of their selective binding to bacterial ribosomal RNA. They act by stimulating the dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosome during the translocation process.
Tulathromycin possesses in vitro activity against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the bacterial pathogens most commonly associated with bovine and swine respiratory disease, respectively. Increased MIC values have been found in some isolates of Histophilus somni and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In vitro activity against Dichelobacter nodosus (vir), the bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with infectious pododermatitis (foot rot) in sheep has been demonstrated.
Tulathromycin also possesses in vitro activity against Moraxella bovis, the bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with infectious bovin keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).
Resistance to macrolides can develop by mutations in genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or some ribosomal proteins; by enzymatic modification (methylation) of the 23S rRNA target site, generally giving rise to cross-resistance with lincosamides and group B streptogramins (MLSB resistance); by enzymatic inactivation; or by macrolide efflux. MLSB resistance may be constitutive or inducible. Resistance may be chromosomal or plasmid-encoded and may be transferable if associated with transposons or plasmids.
In addition to its antimicrobial properties, tulathromycin demonstrates immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory actions in experimental studies. In both bovine and porcine polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs; neutrophils), tulathromycin promotes apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. It lowers the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators leukotriene B4 and CXCL-8 and induces the production of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid lipoxin A4.
In cattle, the pharmacokinetic profile of tulathromycin when administered as a single subcutaneous dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, was characterised by rapid and extensive absorption followed by high distribution and slow elimination. The maximum concentration (Cmax) in plasma was approximately 0.5 μg/ml; this was achieved approximately 30 minutes post-dosing (Tmax). Tulathromycin concentrations in lung homogenate were considerably higher than those in plasma. There is strong evidence of substantial accumulation of tulathromycin in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. However, the in vivo concentration of tulathromycin at the infection site of the lung is not known. Peak concentrations were followed by a slow decline in systemic exposure with an apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of 90 hours in plasma. Plasma protein binding was low, approximately 40%. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) determined after intravenous administration was 11 l/kg. The bioavailability of tulathromycin after subcutaneous administration in cattle was approximately 90%.
In pigs, the pharmacokinetic profile of tulathromycin when administered as a single intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, was also characterised by rapid and extensive absorption followed by high distribution and slow elimination. The maximum concentration (Cmax) in plasma was approximately 0.6 μg/ml; this was achieved approximately 30 minutes post-dosing (Tmax). Tulathromycin concentrations in lung homogenate were considerably higher than those in plasma. There is strong evidence of substantial accumulation of tulathromycin in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. However, the in vivo concentration of tulathromycin at the infection site of the lung is not known. Peak concentrations were followed by a slow decline in systemic exposure with an apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of approximately 91 hours in plasma. Plasma protein binding was low, approximately 40%. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) determined after intravenous administration was 13.2 l/kg. The bioavailability of tulathromycin after intramuscular administration in pigs was approximately 88%.
In sheep, the pharmacokinetic profile of tulathromycin, when administered as a single intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, achieved a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1.19 µg/ml in approximately 15 minutes (Tmax) post-dosing and had an elimination half-life (t1/2) of 69.7 hours. Plasma protein binding was approximately 60-75%. Following intravenous dosing the volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) was 31.7 l/kg. The bioavailability of tulathromycin after intramuscular administration in sheep was 100%.
Marketing Authorisation Number
UK(GB): Vm 42058/5021
UK(NI): EU/2/03/041/001-005
Significant changes
GTIN
GTIN description:20 ml:
GTIN:05013457079470
GTIN description:50 ml:
GTIN:05013457079227
GTIN description:100 ml:
GTIN:05013457079234