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Contra-indications, warnings, etc
Do not use in animals known to be hypersensitive to the active ingredients.
The product is metabolised by the liver and excreted via the kidney and hence should not be used in animals with hepatic or renal disfunction or failure.
Do not use the product as a sole agent in horses, donkeys and dogs.
Special Warnings for use in animals
It is important that both induction and recovery should occur in quiet and calm surroundings.
It is generally accepted as good anaesthetic practice to starve animals for a period of 12 hours prior to anaesthesia where possible.
A small proportion of animals have been reported to be unresponsive to ketamine as an anaesthetic agent at normal dosages.
Use of premedicants should be followed by a suitable reduction in ketamine dosage. This reduction may be up to 50%.
Care should be taken when using ketamine-halothane combinations since the half-life of ketamine is prolonged.
Use of the intramuscular route may be associated with pain.
Special precautions for each target species
Ketamine may cause salivation in cats. Atropine premedication may reduce this side effect.
Muscular twitching and mild tonic convulsions have been recorded in the cat at recommended dose rates. These subside spontaneously but may be prevented by use of acepromazine or xylazine premedication, or controlled by use of acepromazine or ultra short acting barbiturates in low doses.
When used with xylazine for anaesthesia in cats, the patient should be supervised for 15-30 minutes post operatively to ensure a regular respiratory pattern. Should apnoea occur, gentle pressure with finger and thumb to the nasal septum will stimulate immediate inspiration.
Horse and donkey
Do not use the product as a sole agent in the horse and donkey.
Horses must be quietly and carefully handled during the administration of anaesthetic agents.
With the product anaesthesia, the eyes remain open and the pupils dilated. The eyes may be protected by application of a bland ophthalmic ointment or covering with a damp gauze swab.
Operator warning
This is a potent drug – particular care should be taken to avoid self-administration. In the event of accidental self-administration, seek urgent medical attention and show the label and other product literature. Do not drive.
Advice to doctor: do not leave patient unattended. Maintain airways and give symptomatic and supportive treatment.
Wash off splashes from skin and eyes immediately.
Adverse Reactions (frequency and seriousness)
Cats may show excessive salivation, hypotension, muscle twitching or mild convulsions.
Use during pregnancy or lactation
Use is not recommended during pregnancy.
Combinations with xylazine and detomidine should not be used in the last trimester of pregnancy. Combinations with medetomidine should not be used in pregnant cats.
Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes( if necessary)
If necessary, suitable artificial aids to maintain ventilation and cardiac output should be used until sufficient detoxification has taken place to enable a return to adequate spontaneous ventilation and cardiac activity. Pharmacological cardiac stimulants are not recommended, unless no other supportive measures are available.
Withdrawal periods
Not for use in horses and donkeys intended for human consumption. Treated horses may never be slaughtered for human consumption. The horse must have been declared as not intended for human consumption under national horse passport legislation.
Do not use ketamine with barbiturates, diazepam, xylazine or detomidine in the same syringe.