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Contra-indications, warnings, etc
This product is contraindicated for use at the latter stages of pregnancy except at parturition.
Because of the emetic effect which is sometimes produced, the product should not be used in cats and dogs with mechanical complications of the alimentary tract such as obstruction of the oesophagus, gastric torsion, or hernia.
Following intravenous injection there is a transient rise followed by a fall of blood pressure.
The usual precautions required for handling should always be observed even when a high dose of xylazine is given.
In recumbent cattle, tympany should be prevented by maintaining sternal recumbency.
For operations in lateral or dorsal recumbency it is advisable to lower the head and neck in order to avoid inhalation of saliva or rumenal fluids. When high doses are to be employed the animal should be fasted for some hours beforehand.
After dose levels 3 or 4, cattle are likely to remain drowsy for several hours and should be kept in the shade.
Special precautions for use in animals
As the safety of xylazine use during organogenesis has not been proven by current methods, care should be taken during the first month of pregnancy.
Care should be taken with aged animals or those with compromised lung function or suspected pulmonary disease since xylazine will depress respiration.
In the event of respiratory failure, manual compression of the thorax is usually sufficient to restore normal respiration.
Calm, old or sick animals react more distinctly to the product.
Sedated animals should be kept under supervision until normal, and they should be segregated to avoid bullying by others.
Operator warning
Care should be taken to avoid accidental self-injection. To avoid accidental self-injection, one of the following procedures should be adopted. Either use two sterile needles, one to fill the syringe from the bottle and one to inject the patient, or once the required dose has been withdrawn from the vial, immediately remove the needle from the syringe, insert the needle into the injection site, and then connect the syringe to it. Used needles should be safely deposited in a closed container.
1. In the case of accidental oral intake or self-injection, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet to the doctor but DO NOT DRIVE as sedation and changes in blood pressure may occur.
2. Avoid skin, eye or mucosal contact.
3. Immediately after exposure, wash the exposed skin with large amounts of fresh water.
4. Remove contaminated clothes that are in direct contact with skin.
5. In the case of accidental contact of the product with eyes, rinse with large amounts of fresh water. If symptoms occur, seek the advice of a doctor.
6. If pregnant women handle the product, special caution should be observed not to self-inject as uterine contractions and decreased foetal blood pressure may occur after accidental systemic exposure.
7. Advice to doctors:
Xylazine is an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist. Symptoms after absorption may involve clinical effects including dose-dependent sedation, respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension, a dry mouth, and hyperglycaemia. Ventricular arrhythmias have also been reported. Respiratory and haemodynamic symptoms should be treated symptomatically.
Adverse reactions
Transient hyperglycaemia is a common finding after administration
Following intravenous injection there is a transient rise followed by a fall of blood pressure.
The swallowing reflex is reduced during the period when the action of the drug is at its peak.
Cats and dogs
If the stomach is full, vomiting occurs before sedation is complete. This is an advantage if general anaesthesia is to follow. The emetic effect is reduced by fasting for 6-24 hours before administration.
Use during pregnancy or lactation
The product is contraindicated for use at the latter stages of pregnancy except at parturition.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Analeptics (stimulants) will shorten the period or reduce the depth of sedation. In horses and dogs a deeper sedation with less side effects is achieved when Xylazine is combined with strong analgesics.
The concurrent intravenous use of potentiated sulphonamides with alpha-2 agonists has been reported to cause cardiac arrhythmia which may be fatal. It is recommended that intravenous administration of trimethoprim/sulphonamide containing products should not be undertaken when horses have been sedated with the product.
The limited information available indicates that alpha-2 blockers such as atipamazole may be effective in reversing the sedation and other physiological effects of the drug.
In case of accidental overdose leading to respiratory failure, cold water douches and artificial respiration are indicated.
Withdrawal periods
Meat and offal: One day
Milk: Zero hours
Meat and offal: One day