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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Anti-inflammatory and Anti-rheumatic products, non-steroids (oxicams).
ATCvet code: QM01AC06.
Pharmacodynamic properties
Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the oxicam class which acts by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thereby exerting anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-exudative and antipyretic effects. It reduces leukocyte infiltration into the inflamed tissue. To a minor extent it also inhibits collagen-induced thrombocyte aggregation. Meloxicam also has anti-endotoxic properties because it has been shown to inhibit production of thromboxane B2 induced by intravenous E. coli endotoxin administration in calves and pigs.
Pharmacokinetic properties
When the product is used according to the recommended dosage regime, the oral bioavailability is approximately 98%. Maximal plasma concentrations are obtained after approximately 2–3 hours. The accumulation factor of 1.08 suggests that meloxicam does not accumulate when administered daily.
Approximately 98% of meloxicam is bound to plasma proteins. The volume of distribution is 0.12 l/kg.
The metabolism is qualitatively similar in rats, mini-pigs, humans, cattle and pigs, although quantitatively there are differences. The major metabolites found in all species were the 5-hydroxy- and 5-carboxy- metabolites and the oxalyl- metabolite. The metabolism in horses was not investigated. All major metabolites have been shown to be pharmacologically inactive.
Meloxicam is eliminated with a terminal half-life of 7.7 hours.