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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacodynamic properties
Eprinomectin is a molecule with an endectocidal activity belonging to the macrocyclic lactone class. Compounds of the class bind with high affinity to glutamate-gated chloride ion channels which occur in invertebrate nerve or muscle cells. These compounds bind selectively to these channels, which leads to an increase in the permeability of the cell membrane to chloride ions with hyperpolarization of the nerve or muscle cell, resulting in paralysis and death of the parasite.
Compounds of this class may also interact with other ligand-gated chloride channels, such as those gated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Pharmacokinetic properties
The bioavailability of topically applied eprinomectin in cattle is about 30% with most absorption occurring within 10 days after treatment. Eprinomectin is not extensively metabolized in cattle following topical administration. In all biological matrices, the B1a component of eprinomectin is the single most abundant residue.
Eprinomectin consists of the components B1a (≥ 90%) and B1b (≤ 10%) which differ by a methylene unit and is not extensively metabolized in cattle. Metabolites amount to approximately 10% of the total residues in plasma, milk, edible tissues and faeces.
The metabolism profile is nearly identical, qualitatively and quantitatively, in the above biological matrices and does not change significantly with time after administration of eprinomectin. The percent contribution of B1a and B1b to the overall metabolite profile remains constant. The ratio of the two drug components in the biological matrices is identical to that in the formulation demonstrating that the two eprinomectin components are metabolized with nearly equal rate constants. Since the metabolism and the tissue distribution of the two components are quite similar, the pharmacokinetics of the two components would be also similar.
Eprinomectin is strongly linked to plasma proteins (99%). Faeces is the major route of elimination.
Environmental properties
Like other macrocyclic lactones, eprinomectin has the potential to adversely affect non-target organisms. Following treatment, excretion of potentially toxic levels of eprinomectin may take place over a period of several weeks. Faeces containing eprinomectin excreted onto pasture by treated animals may reduce the abundance of dung feeding organisms which may impact on the dung degradation. Eprinomectin is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may accumulate in sediments. Eprinomectin is persistent in soils.