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Date: Tuesday, August 9, 2022 16:10

Description: Virbac 2013
Release 2.28
Prinovox Spot On solution for Dogs
Species: Dogs
Therapeutic indication: Pharmaceuticals: Endoparasiticides: Anthelmintics for dogs, Pharmaceuticals: Ectoparasiticides: For dogs
Active ingredient: Imidacloprid, Moxidectin
Product:Prinovox Spot on solution for Dogs
Product index: Prinovox Spot on solution for dogs
Qualitative and quantitative composition
Prinovox spot on for small dogs (0.4ml) contains as active ingredients: Imidacloprid (40mg) and Moxidectin (10mg)
Prinovox spot on for medium dogs (1.0ml) contains as active ingredients: Imidacloprid (100mg) and Moxidectin (25mg)
Prinovox spot on for large dogs (2.5ml) contains as active ingredients: Imidacloprid (250mg) and Moxidectin (62.5mg)
Prinovox spot on for extra large dogs (4.0ml) contains as active ingredients: Imidacloprid (400mg) and Moxidectin (100mg)
Pharmaceutical form
Clear yellow to brownish spot-on solution.
Clinical particulars
Target species
Indications for use
- For dogs suffering from, or at risk from, mixed parasitic infections:
- For the treatment and prevention of flea infestation (Ctenocephalides felis),
- The treatment of biting lice (Trichodectes canis),
- The treatment of ear mite infestation (Otodectes cynotis), sarcoptic mange (caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis), demodicosis (caused by Demodex canis),
- The prevention of heartworm disease (L3 and L4 larvae of Dirofilaria immitis),
- The treatment of circulating microfilariae (Dirofilaria immitis),
- The prevention of cutaneous dirofilariosis (L3 larvae of Dirofilaria repens),
- The reduction of circulating microfilariae (Dirofilaria repens),
- The prevention of angiostrongylosis (L4 larvae and immature adults of Angiostrongylus vasorum),
- The treatment of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis,
- The prevention of spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi),
- The treatment of Eucoleus (syn. Capillaria) boehmi (adults),
- The treatment of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda (adults),
- The treatment of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (L4 larvae, immature adults and adults of Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, adults of Toxascaris leonina and Trichuris vulpis).
- The product can be used as part of a treatment strategy for flea allergy dermatitis (FAD).
Do not use in puppies under 7 weeks of age.
Do not use in animals that are known to be hypersensitive to the active substances or to any of the excipients.
Do not use in dogs classified as Class 4 for heartworm disease as the safety of the product has not been evaluated in this animal group.
For cats, the corresponding “Prinovox for cat” product, which contains 100 mg/ml imidacloprid and 10 mg/ml moxidectin, must be used.
For ferrets: Do not use Prinovox for dogs. Only “Prinovox for small cats and ferrets” (0.4 ml) must be used.
Special warnings for each target species
Brief contact of the animal with water on one or two occasions between monthly treatments is unlikely to significantly reduce the efficacy of the product. However, frequent shampooing or immersion of the animal in water after treatment may reduce the efficacy of the product.
Parasite resistance to any particular class of anthelmintic may develop following frequent, repeated use of an anthelmintic of that class. Therefore, the use of this product should be based on the assessment of each individual case and on local epidemiological information about the current susceptibility of the target species in order to limit the possibility of a future selection for resistance.
The use of the product should be based on the confirmed diagnosis of mixed infection (or risk of infection, where prevention applies) at the same time.
The product has not been shown to have an adulticidal effect against D. repens.
Special precautions for use
i) Special precautions for use in animals
The treatment of animals weighing less than 1 kg should be based on a risk-benefit assessment.
There is limited experience on the use of the product in sick and debilitated animals, thus the product should only be used based on a risk-benefit assessment for these animals.
Care should be taken that the content of the pipette or the applied dose does not come into contact with the eyes or mouth of the recipient and/or other animals. Do not allow recently treated animals to groom each other. When the product is applied in 3 to 4 separate spots, specific care should be taken to prevent the animal licking the application sites.
This product contains moxidectin (a macrocyclic lactone), therefore special care should be taken with Collies, Old English Sheepdogs and related breeds or crossbreeds, to correctly administer the product as described under dosage schedule; in particular, oral uptake by the recipient and/or other animals in close contact should be prevented.
The product should not enter water courses as it has harmful effects on aquatic organisms: moxidectin is highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Dogs should not be allowed to swim in surface waters for 4 days after treatment.
The safety of the product has only been evaluated in dogs classified as either Class 1 or 2 for heartworm disease in laboratory studies and in a few Class 3 dogs in a field study. Therefore the use in dogs with obvious or severe symptoms of the disease should be based on a careful benefit risk assessment by the treating veterinarian.
Although experimental overdosage studies have shown that the product may be safely administered to dogs infected with adult heartworms, it has no therapeutic effect against adult Dirofilaria immitis. It is therefore recommended that all dogs 6 months of age or more, living in areas endemic for heartworm, should be tested for existing adult heartworm infection before being treated with the product. At the discretion of the veterinarian, infected dogs should be treated with an adulticide to remove adult heartworms. The safety of this product has not been evaluated when administered on the same day as an adulticide.
Adverse reactions
-Use of the product may result in transient pruritus in dogs. On rare occasions greasy hair, erythema and vomiting can occur. These signs disappear without further treatment. The product may, in rare cases, cause local hypersensitivity reactions. If the animal licks the application site after treatment, neurological signs (most of which are transient) may be observed in very rare cases.
The product tastes bitter. Salivation may occasionally occur if the animal licks the application site immediately after treatment. This is not a sign of intoxication and disappears within some minutes without treatment. Correct application will minimise licking of the application sites.
The product may in very rare cases cause at the application site a sensation resulting in transient behavioural changes such as lethargy, agitation, and inappetence.
A field study has shown that in heartworm positive dogs with microfilaraemia there is a risk of severe respiratory signs (coughing, tachypnea and dyspnea) that may require prompt veterinary treatment. In the study these reactions were common (seen in 2 of 106 treated dogs). Gastrointestinal signs (vomiting, diarrhoea, inappetence) and lethargy are also common adverse reactions following treatment in such dogs.
Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
The safety of the veterinary medicinal product has not been established during pregnancy and lactation. Laboratory studies with either imidacloprid or moxidectin in rats and rabbits have not produced any evidence of teratogenic, foetotoxic or maternotoxic effects.
Use only according to the benefit-risk assessment by the responsible veterinarian.
During treatment with this veterinary medicinal product no other antiparasitic macrocyclic lactone should be administered.
No interactions between this veterinary medicinal product and routinely used veterinary medicinal products or medical or surgical procedures have been observed.
Safety of this veterinary medicinal product when administered on the same day as an adulticide to remove adult heartworms has not been evaluated.
Amounts to be administered and administration route
Dosage schedule:
The recommended minimum doses are 10 mg/kg bodyweight imidacloprid and 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight moxidectin, equivalent to 0.1 ml of this product per kg bodyweight.
The treatment schedule should be based on individual veterinary diagnosis and on the local epidemiological situation.
Flea treatment and prevention
One treatment prevents future flea infestation for 4 weeks. Existing pupae in the environment may emerge for 6 weeks or longer after treatment is initiated, depending upon climatic conditions. Therefore, it may be necessary to combine the treatment with the product with environmental treatments aimed at breaking the flea life cycle in the surroundings. This can result in a more rapid reduction in the household flea population. The product should be administered at monthly intervals when used as part of a treatment strategy for flea allergy dermatitis.
Treatment of biting lice (Trichodectes canis)
A single dose should be administered. A further veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment.
Treatment of ear mite infestation (Otodectes cynotis)
A single dose of the product should be administered. Loose debris should be gently removed from the external ear canal at each treatment. A further veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment. Do not apply directly to the ear canal.
Treatment of sarcoptic mange (caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis)
A single dose should be administered twice 4 weeks apart.
Treatment of demodicosis (caused by Demodex canis)
The administration of a single dose every 4 weeks for 2 to 4 months is efficacious against Demodex canis and leads to a marked improvement of clinical signs particularly in mild to moderate cases. Especially severe cases may require more prolonged and more frequent treatment. To achieve the best possible response in these severe cases, at the discretion of the veterinarian, the product can be applied once a week and for a prolonged time. In all cases it is essential that the treatment should be continued until skin scrapings are negative on at least 2 consecutive monthly occasions. Treatment should be stopped in dogs that show no improvement or do not respond in mite count after 2 months treatment. Alternative treatment should be administered. Seek the advice of your veterinarian.
As demodicosis is a multi-factorial disease, where possible, it is advisable to also treat any underlying disease appropriately.
Prevention of heartworm disease (D. immitis) and cutaneous dirofilariosis (D. repens)
Dogs in areas endemic for heartworm, or those which have travelled to endemic areas, may be infected with adult heartworms. Therefore prior to treatment with this product, the advice provided above should be considered.
For prevention of heartworm disease and cutaneous dirofilariosis, the product must be applied at regular monthly intervals during the time of the year when mosquitoes (the intermediate hosts which carry and transmit D. immitis and D. repens larvae) are present. The product may be administered throughout the year or at least 1 month before the first expected exposure to mosquitoes. Treatment should continue at regular monthly intervals until 1 month after the last exposure to mosquitoes. To establish a treatment routine, it is recommended that the same day or date be used each month. When replacing another heartworm preventative product in a heartworm prevention programme, the first treatment with this product must be given within 1 month of the last dose of the former medication.
In non-endemic areas there should be no risk of dogs having heartworm. Therefore they can be treated without special precautions.
Treatment of microfilariae (D. immitis)
The product should be administered monthly for two consecutive months.
Reduction of microfilariae ( D. repens)
The product should be administered monthly for four consecutive months. Efficacy against adult worms has not been shown. Adult worms may continue to produce microfilariae.
Treatment and prevention of Angiostrongylus vasorum
A single dose should be administered. A further veterinary examination 30 days after treatment is recommended as some animals may require a second treatment.
In endemic areas regular 4 weekly application will prevent angiostrongylosis and patent infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum.
Treatment of Crenosoma vulpis
A single dose should be administered.
Prevention of Spirocerca lupi:
The product should be administered monthly.
Treatment of Eucoleus (syn. Capillaria) boehmi (adults)
The product should be administered monthly for two consecutive months. It is advisable to prevent auto-coprophagia between the two treatments in order to prevent possible reinfection.
Treatment of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda (adults)
A single dose of the product should be administered.
Roundworm, hookworm and whipworm treatment
In areas endemic for heartworm, monthly treatment may significantly reduce the risk of re-infection caused by the respective round-, hook- and whipworms. In areas non-endemic for heartworm, the product can be used as part of a seasonal prevention programme against fleas and gastrointestinal nematodes.
Studies have shown that monthly treatment of dogs will prevent infections caused by Uncinaria stenocephala.
Method of administration
For external use only.
Remove one pipette from the package. Then hold the pipette in an upright position, and twist and pull off the cap. Reverse the cap and use it to twist and remove the seal from the pipette.
With the dog in a standing position, part the coat between the shoulder blades until the skin is visible. Wherever possible apply to undamaged skin. Place the tip of the pipette on the skin and squeeze the pipette firmly several times to empty its contents directly onto the skin.
Weight of dog (kg)
Pipette size to be used
Imidacloprid (mg/kg bw)
Moxidectin (mg/kg bw)
Prinovox for Small Dogs
Minimum of 10
Minimum of 2.5
Prinovox for medium dogs
Prinovox for large dogs
Prinovox for extra large dogs
the appropriate combination of pipettes
Up to 10 times the recommended dose was tolerated in adult dogs with no evidence of adverse effects or undesirable clinical signs. Five times the recommended minimum dose applied at weekly intervals for 17 weeks was investigated in dogs aged over 6 months and tolerated with no evidence of adverse effects or undesirable clinical signs.
The product was administered to puppies at up to 5 times the recommended dose, every 2 weeks for 6 treatments, and there were no serious safety concerns. Transient mydriasis, salivation, vomiting and transient rapid respiration were observed.
After accidental oral ingestion or overdose, neurological signs (most of which are transient) such as ataxia, generalised tremors, ocular signs (dilated pupils, little pupillary reflex, nystagmus), abnormal respiration, salivation and vomiting may occur in very rare cases.
Ivermectin-sensitive Collie dogs tolerated up to 5 times the recommended dose repeated at monthly intervals without any adverse effects, but the safety of application at weekly intervals has not been investigated in ivermectin-sensitive Collie dogs. When 40 % of the unit dose was given orally, severe neurological signs were observed. Oral administration of 10 % of the recommended dose produced no adverse effects.
Dogs infected with adult heartworms tolerated up to 5 times the recommended dose, every 2 weeks for 3 treatments, without any adverse effects.
In case of accidental oral uptake, symptomatic treatment should be administered. There is no known specific antidote. The use of activated charcoal may be beneficial.
Withdrawal periods
Not applicable
Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacodynamic properties
Imidacloprid, 1-(6-Chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitro-imidazolidin-2-ylideneamine is an ectoparasiticide belonging to the chloronicotinyl group of compounds. Chemically, it is more accurately described as a chloronicotinyl nitroguanidine. Imidacloprid is effective against larval flea stages and adult fleas. Flea larvae in the pet’s surroundings are killed after contact with a pet treated with the product. Imidacloprid has a high affinity for the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors in the post-synaptic region of the central nervous system (CNS) of the flea. The ensuing inhibition of cholinergic transmission in insects results in paralysis and death. Due to the weak nature of the interaction with mammalian nicotinergic receptors and the postulated poor penetration through the blood-brain barrier in mammals, it has virtually no effect on the mammalian CNS. Imidacloprid has minimal pharmacological activity in mammals.
Moxidectin, 23-(O-methyloxime)-F28249 alpha is a second-generation macrocyclic lactone of the milbemycin family. It is a parasiticide which is active against many internal and external parasites. Moxidectin is active against larval stages (L3, L4) of Dirofilaria immitis. It is also active against gastrointestinal nematodes. Moxidectin interacts with GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels. This leads to opening of the chloride channels on the postsynaptic junction, the inflow of chloride ions and induction of an irreversible resting state. The result is flaccid paralysis of affected parasites, followed by their death and/or expulsion.
Pharmacokinetic properties
After topical administration of the product, imidacloprid is rapidly distributed over the animal’s skin within one day of application. It can be found on the body surface throughout the treatment interval. Moxidectin is absorbed through the skin, reaching maximum plasma concentrations approximately 4 to 9 days after treatment in dogs. Following absorption from the skin, moxidectin is distributed systemically and is slowly eliminated from the plasma as manifested by detectable moxidectin concentrations in plasma throughout the treatment interval of one month.
Pharmaceutical particulars
Butylhydroxytoluene E321
Benzyl alcohol
Propylene carbonate
Major incompatibilities
None known
Shelf life
Shelf life of the veterinary medicinal product as packaged for sale: 3 years.
Special precautions for storage
This veterinary medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
Immediate packaging
Pipettes containing either 0.4ml, 1.0ml, 2.5ml or 4.0ml.
Blister pack containing 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 unit dose pipettes.
Container material - White polypropylene unit dose pipette with screw cap.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Any unused product or waste materials derived from such veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
The product should not enter water courses as this may be dangerous for fish and other aquatic organisms.
Marketing Authorisation Holder (if different from distributor)
Bayer plc
Animal Health Division
Bayer House
Strawberry Hill
RG14 1JA - UK
Marketing Authorisation Number
Prinovox small dog - Vm 00010/4190
Prinovox medium dog Vm 00010/4191
Prinovox large dog - Vm 00010/4192
Prinovox extra large dog Vm 00010/4193
Significant changes
Date of the first authorisation or date of renewal
17 December 2014
Date of revision of the text
Any other information
Legal category
Legal category: POM-V
GTIN description:Prinovox Small dog
GTIN description:Prinovox medium dog
GTIN description:Prinovox large dog
GTIN description:Prinovox extra large dog