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Clinical particulars
Target species
Indications for use, specifying the target species
For the treatment of bronchitis and congestive heart failure in dogs.
Concurrent use of beta-sympathomimetics is contra-indicated, as additive or synergistic interactions, resulting in exaggerated side effects may result.
Do not use in dogs with a known history of epileptiform seizures as convulsions have been reported in patients on theophylline treatment, often with no preceding signs of toxicity and in otherwise apparently normal animals.
Special warnings for each target species
None known.
Special precautions for use
Special precautions for use in animals
Theophylline should be used with caution in patients with liver disease. If vomiting occurs, the dose should be reduced or the treatment discontinued.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals
In the case of accidental ingestion, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician.
Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
The following side effects have been reported: restlessness, agitation, excitement, vomiting, diarrhoea, polydipsia, sedation, reduced appetite and polyuria.
If signs of CNS excitement occur, (twitching, restlessness or convulsions) discontinue treatment immediately.
Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
When theophylline is prescribed to pregnant bitches, the risk-benefit of the treatment should be assessed. Only small amounts of theophylline are excreted in milk.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Plasma theophylline levels may increase in patients under treatment with macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as erythromycin and enrofloxacin, and decrease in patients receiving phenobarbitone or phenytoin.
Theophylline may reduce the convulsive threshold in patients receiving ketamine.
Administration of theophylline shortly before halothane anaesthesia may result in arrhythmogenic effects.
Amounts to be administered and administration route
20 mg per kg bodyweight to be given orally once daily only.
Care should be taken to ensure that dogs are weighed carefully and accurately, and the dose does not exceed 20 mg/kg body weight.
Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary
There is no specific treatment for theophylline overdose in the dog. The condition should be treated symptomatically with emetics, oral activated charcoal or anti-convulsive drugs as necessary.
Withdrawal period(s)
Not applicable.