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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic products, non-steroids, coxibs.
ATCvet code: QM01AH91.
Pharmacodynamic properties
Robenacoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the coxib class. It is a potent and selective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme (COX-2). The cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) is present in two forms. COX-1 is the constitutive form of the enzyme and has protective functions, e.g. in the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. COX-2 is the inducible form of the enzyme which is responsible for the production of mediators including PGE2 which induce pain, inflammation or fever.
In the in vitro whole blood assay in cats, the selectivity of robenacoxib was approximately 500 fold higher for COX-2 (IC50 0.058 μM) as compared to COX-1 (IC50 28.9 μM). At a dose of 1–2 mg/kg body weight, robenacoxib tablets produced a marked inhibition of COX-2 activity in cats and had no effect on COX-1 activity. In an inflammation model in cats, robenacoxib injection had analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects and a rapid onset of action (0.5 h). In clinical trials in cats, robenacoxib tablets reduced pain and inflammation associated with musculoskeletal disorders and reduced the need for rescue treatment when given as premedication in case of orthopaedic surgery, in combination with opioids. In two clinical trials in (mainly indoor) cats with chronic musculo-skeletal disorder (CMSD), robenacoxib increased the activity and improved subjective scores of activity, behaviour, quality of life, temperament and happiness of the cats. Differences between robenacoxib and placebo were significant (P<0.05) for the client specific outcome measures, but did not reach significance (P=0.07) for the feline musculoskeletal pain index.
In a clinical study, 10 of 35 CMSD cats were assessed to be significantly more active when treated with robenacoxib for three weeks compared to these same cats when they received a placebo treatment. Two cats were more active when given placebo and for the remaining 23 cats no significant difference in activity could be detected between robenacoxib and placebo treatment.
Pharmacokinetic particulars
After oral administration of robenacoxib tablets at approximately 2 mg/kg without food, peak blood concentrations are attained rapidly with a Tmax of 0.5 h, a Cmax of 1,159 ng/ml and an AUC of 1,337 5 ng·h/ml. Co-administration of robenacoxib tablets with one third of the daily food ration produced no change in Tmax (0.5 h), Cmax (1,201 ng/ml) or AUC (1383 ng·h/ml). Co-administration of robenacoxib tablets with the entire daily food ration produced no delay in Tmax (0.5 h), but a lower Cmax (691 ng/ml) and a slightly lower AUC (1,069 ng·h/ml). The systemic bioavailability of robenacoxib tablets was 49% without food.
Robenacoxib has a relatively small volume of distribution (Vss 190 ml/kg) and is highly bound to plasma proteins (more than 99%).
In cats robenacoxib is extensively metabolised by the liver. Apart from one lactam metabolite, the identity of other metabolites is not known in cats.
Robenacoxib is rapidly cleared from blood (CL 0.44 L/kg/h) with an elimination t1/2 of 1.1 h after intravenous administration. After oral administration of tablets, the terminal half-life from blood was 1.7 h. Robenacoxib persists longer and at higher concentrations at sites of inflammation than in blood. Robenacoxib is excreted predominantly via the biliary route (~70%) rather than via the kidneys (~30%). The pharmacokinetics of robenacoxib do not differ between male and female cats.