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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antiprotozoals, agents against protozoal diseases, nitroimidazole derivatives
ATCvet code: QP51AA01
Pharmacodynamic properties
After metronidazole has penetrated the bacteria the molecule is reduced by the sensitive bacteria (anaerobe). The metabolites that are created have a toxic effect on the bacteria through binding to the bacterial DNA. In general metronidazole is bactericidal for sensitive bacteria in concentrations equal to or a little higher than the minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC).
Clinically metronidazole does not have any relevant effect on facultative anaerobe, obligate aerobe and microaerophilic bacteria.
Pharmacokinetic properties
Metronidazole is immediately and well absorbed after oral administration. After 1 hour a plasma concentration of 10 micrograms/ml was reached with a single dose of 50 mg. The bioavailability of metronidazole is almost 100% and the half life in the plasma is approximately 8-10 hours. Metronidazole penetrates well into the tissues and bodily fluids, such as saliva, milk, vaginal secretions and semen. Metronidazole is primarily metabolised in the liver. Within 24 hours after oral administration 35-65% of the administered dose (metronidazole and the metabolites thereof) es excreted in the urine.