ATCvet code: QP54AB52.
Antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents, endectocides, milbemycins.
Fluralaner is an acaricide and insecticide. It is efficacious against ticks (Ixodes ricinus), (Ctenocephalides felis) and ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) on the cat.
The onset of effect (killing effect) for ticks (I. ricinus) and fleas (C. felis) is within 48 hours after treatment.
Fluralaner has a high potency against ticks and fleas by exposure via feeding, i.e. it is systemically active on target parasites.
Fluralaner is a potent inhibitor of parts of the arthropod nervous system by acting antagonistically on ligand-gated chloride channels (GABA-receptor and glutamate-receptor).
In molecular on-target studies on insect GABA receptors of flea and fly, fluralaner is not affected by dieldrin resistance.
In in vitro bio-assays, fluralaner is not affected by proven field resistances against amidines (tick), organophosphates (tick), cyclodienes (tick, flea), phenylpyrazoles (tick, flea), benzophenyl ureas (tick), and pyrethroids (tick).
The product contributes towards the control of the environmental flea populations in areas to which treated cats have access.
Newly emerged fleas on a cat are killed before viable eggs are produced. An in vitro study also demonstrated that very low concentrations of fluralaner stop the production of viable eggs by fleas.
The flea life cycle is broken due to the rapid onset of action and long-lasting efficacy against adult fleas on the animal and the absence of viable egg production.
Moxidectin, a semisynthetic derivative of nemadectin, belongs to the milbemycin group of macrocyclic lactones (avermectins being the other) and has parasiticidal activity against a range of internal and external parasites (including ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and lungworm (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus)). Moxidectin lacks substantial efficacy against fleas and ticks. Moxidectin is only active on larvae (L3 and L4) of Dirofilaria immitis and not on adult worms. The effect on Dirofilaria immitis larvae has been shown to last over a period of 60 days after treatment with the product and on D. immitis larvae that infected the host up to 30 days before treatment.
Milbemycins and avermectins have a common mode of action that is based on the binding of ligand-gated chloride channels (glutamate-R and GABA-R). This leads to an increased membrane permeability of nematode and arthropod nerve and/or muscle cells for chloride ions and results in hyperpolarization, paralysis and death of the parasites. Binding of glutamate-gated chloride channels, which are specific to invertebrates and do not exist in mammals, is considered the main mechanism for the anthelmintic and insecticidal activity.
Fluralaner is readily systemically absorbed from the topical administration site, reaching maximum concentrations in plasma between 3 and 21 days after administration. Fluralaner is slowly eliminated from plasma (t1/2 = 15 days) and excreted in faeces and to a very low extent in urine.
Moxidectin is readily systemically absorbed from the topical administration site, reaching maximum concentrations in plasma between 1 and 5 days after administration. Moxidectin is slowly eliminated from plasma (t1/2 = 26 days) and excreted in faeces and to a very low extent in urine.
The pharmacokinetic profiles of fluralaner and moxidectin are not affected by co-administration.