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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Ectoparasiticide for topical use, including insecticides. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids.
ATCvet code: QP53AC11
Pharmacodynamic properties
Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid possessing insecticidal and acaricidal activity. It is one of a large family of pyrethroid esters which have evolved as synthetic analogues of the original insecticidal extracts isolated from powdered pyrethrum flowers. Deltamethrin is an alpha- cyano pyrethroid and is a member of the second generation of pyrethroids in which the overall stability of the molecule is improved with correspondingly increased resistance to photo- and bio-degradation and enhanced insecticidal activity. It is more potently toxic to insects and acarines because of the slower rate of metabolism.
The precise mode of insecticidal activity of pyrethroids remains uncertain, but they are potent neurotoxins in insects, causing failure in sensory coordination and disorganised motor activity, hence the 'knock-down' effect. Pyrethroids are metabolised through oxidative and neurotoxic pathways far more rapidly in mammals, so that neurotoxic effects can only occur at dosages which are many orders of magnitude greater than those required for ectoparasitic activity.
Two physiological mechanisms are likely to contribute to deltamethrin-resistance: mutation of the molecular deltamethrin target or through metabolic enzyme glutathione-S-transferases.
Pharmacokinetic particulars
After dermal application, deltamethrin is slightly absorbed through skin of cattle and sheep.
Pyrethroids are metabolised through oxidative and neurotoxic pathways.
The main route of excretion of the absorbed amount in the target animal is the faeces.
Environmental properties
Deltamethrin has the potential to adversely affect non-target organisms, both in water and in dung. Following treatment, excretion of potentially toxic levels of deltamethrin may take place over a period of 4 weeks. Faeces containing deltamethrin excreted onto pasture by treated animals may reduce the abundance of dung feeding organisms which may impact on the dung degradation.
Deltamethrin is very toxic to dung fauna, aquatic organisms and honey bees, is persistent in soils and may accumulate in sediments.