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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antibacterials for systemic use, Aminoglycoside antibacterials, Other amnioglycosides
ATCvet code: QJ01GB90
Pharmacodynamic properties
Apramycin is a broad-spectrum aminocyclitol antibiotic produced by a strain of Streptomyces tenebrarius. Apramycin is bactericidal at minimum inhibitory concentrations.
Apramycin is effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and some strains of mycoplasma at concentrations of 16 µg/ml or less. It is effective against most field strains of Escherichia coli and salmonellae.
Pharmacokinetic particulars
The oral administration of apramycin is intended for antimicrobial activity within the gut; apramycin is poorly absorbed, particularly in older animals:
Absorption: Pigs. Nine mg of apramycin/kg bodyweight administered orally is well absorbed in 2-day old pigs, slightly absorbed in 4-week old pigs and not absorbed in 8-week old pigs. Calves: Serum levels peak at approximately 6 hours with a value of 2.4 µl/ml following oral administration of 40 mg apramycin/kg bodyweight. Duration of serum activity is between 24 and 36 hours.
Distribution, Biotransformation and Excretion: Pigs. Very little metabolism of apramycin takes place in the animal. Dosing 10 kg pigs with 14C apramycin resulted in approximately 83% being recovered from the faeces, and 4% from the urine, as 14C apramycin.