Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antiparasitic Products Insecticides and Repellents/Endectocides
ATCvet Code: QP 54AA03
Doramectin is a fermentation-derived antiparasitic agent, which belongs to the avermectin class, and is closely related structurally to ivermectin. Both compounds share a wide spectrum of antiparasitic activity and produce a similar paralysis in nematodes and parasitic arthropods. Whilst it is not possible to assign a single mode of action to the avermectins, it is likely that the entire series share a common mechanism. In parasitic organisms the effect is mediated through a specific avermectin-binding site. The physiological response to avermectin binding is an increase in membrane permeability to chloride ions. In invertebrate nervous tissue an influx of chloride ions into the excitatory motor neurone in nematodes or muscle cell of arthropods results in hyperpolarisation and the elimination of signal transmission with resulting paralysis.
Maximum plasma concentration of doramectin occurs in cattle approximately 9 days after topical administration of the veterinary product. An (apparent) elimination half-life of around 10 days results in sustained doramectin concentrations, which protect animals from parasitic infection and re-infection for extended periods following treatment.
Doramectin is very toxic to aquatic organisms.
Like other macrocyclic lactones, doramectin has the potential to adversely affect non-target organisms. Following treatment, excretion of potentially toxic levels of doramectin may take place over a period of several weeks. Faeces containing doramectin excreted onto pasture by treated animals may reduce the abundance of dung feeding organisms, which may impact on the dung degradation.
Doramectin is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may accumulate in sediments.