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Clinical particulars
Target species
Cattle: cows, heifers.
Indications for use, specifying the target species
Induction and synchronisation of oestrus and ovulation in combination with prostaglandin F2α (PGF) or analogue with or without progesterone as part of Fixed Time Artificial Insemination (FTAI) protocols.
Treatment of delayed ovulation (repeat breeding).
A repeat breeder cow or heifer is generally defined as an animal that has been inseminated at least 2 or often 3 times without becoming pregnant, despite having regular normal œstrus cycles (every 18-24 days), normal œstrus behaviour and no clinical abnormalities of the reproductive tract.
Do not use in cases of hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.
Special warnings for each target species
The response of dairy cows to synchronisation protocols may be influenced by the physiological state at the time of treatment, which includes age of the cow, body condition and interval from calving.
Responses to treatment are not uniform either across herds or across cows within herds.
Where a period of progesterone treatment is included in the protocol, the percentage of cows displaying oestrus within a given period is usually greater than in untreated cows and the subsequent luteal phase is of normal duration.
Special precautions for use
Special precautions for use in animals
Not applicable.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals
Gonadorelin is a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) analogue which stimulates the release of sex hormones. The effects of accidental exposure to GnRH analogues in pregnant women or in women with normal reproductive cycles are unknown; therefore it is recommended that pregnant women should not administer the product, and that women of child-bearing age should administer the product with caution. Care should be taken when handling the product to avoid self-injection. In cases of accidental self-injection, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician.
Care should be taken to avoid skin and eye contact. In cases of skin contact, rinse immediately and thoroughly with water as GnRH analogues can be absorbed through the skin. In cases of accidental contact with eyes, rinse thoroughly with plenty of water. People with known hypersensitivity (allergy) to GnRH analogues should avoid contact with the veterinary medicinal product.
Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
Laboratory studies in rats and rabbits have not produced any evidence of a teratogenic or embryotoxic effects.
Observations in pregnant cows receiving the product in early pregnancy have not shown evidence of negative effects on bovine embryos.
Inadvertent administration to a pregnant animal is unlikely to result in adverse effects.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
None known.
Amounts to be administered and administration route
Intramuscular use.
100 µg of gonadorelin (as diacetate) per animal in a single injection. i.e. 2 ml of the product per animal.
Judgement on the protocol to be used should be made by the veterinarian responsible for treatment, on the basis of the treatment objectives of the individual herd or cow. The following protocols have been evaluated and could be used:
Induction and synchronisation of oestrus and ovulation in combination with a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) or analogue:
Day 0: First injection of gonadorelin (2 ml of the product)
Day 7: Injection of prostaglandin (PGF2 α) or analogue
Day 9: Second injection of gonadorelin (2 ml of the product) should be done.
The animal should be inseminated within 16-20 hours after the last injection of the product or at observed oestrus if sooner.
Induction and synchronisation of oestrus and ovulation in combination with a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) or analogue and a progesterone releasing intravaginal device:
The following FTAI protocols have been commonly reported in the literature:
Insert progesterone releasing intravaginal device for 7 days.
Inject gonadorelin (2 ml of the product) at the progesterone device insertion.
Inject a prostaglandin (PGF2 α) or analogue 24 hours prior to device removal
FTAI 56 hours after removal of the device, or
Inject gonadorelin (2 ml of the product) 36 hours after progesterone releasing intravaginal device removal and FTAI 16 to 20 hours later.
Treatment of delayed ovulation (repeat-breeding):
GnRH is injected during oestrus.
To improve the pregnancy rates, the following timing of injection and insemination should be followed:
injection should be performed between 4 and 10 hours after oestrus detection
an interval of at least 2 hours between the injection of GnRH and artificial insemination is recommended
artificial insemination should be carried out in accordance with the usual field recommendations, i.e., 12 to 24 hours after oestrus detection.
Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary
After single administration of up to 5 times recommended dose or one to three daily administrations of recommended dose, no measurable signs of either local or general clinical intolerance are observed.
Withdrawal periods
Meat and offal: zero days
Milk: zero hours