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Pharmacological particulars
Antibacterials for systemic use, macrolides. ATCvet code: QJ01FA94
Pharmacodynamic properties: Tulathromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antimicrobial agent, which originates from a fermentation product. It differs from many other macrolides in that it has a long duration of action that is, in part, due to its three amine groups; therefore it has been given the chemical subclass designation of triamilide. Macrolides are bacteriostatic acting antibiotics and inhibit essential protein biosynthesis by virtue of their selective binding to bacterial ribosomal RNA. They act by stimulating the dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from the ribosome during the translocation process. Tulathromycin possesses in vitro activity against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Bordetella bronchiseptica, the bacterial pathogens most commonly associated with bovine and swine respiratory disease, respectively. Increased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been found in some isolates of Histophilus somni and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In vitro activity against Dichelobacter nodosus (vir), the bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with infectious pododermatitis (foot rot) in sheep, has been demonstrated. Tulathromycin also possesses in vitro activity against Moraxella bovis, the bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Resistance to macrolides can develop by mutations in genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or some ribosomal proteins; by enzymatic modification (methylation) of the 23S rRNA target site, generally giving rise to cross-resistance with lincosamides and group B streptogramins (MLSB resistance); by enzymatic inactivation; or by macrolide efflux. MLSB resistance may be constitutive or inducible. Resistance may be chromosomal or plasmid-encoded and may be transferable if associated with transposons or plasmids. In addition to its antimicrobial properties, tulathromycin demonstrates immune-modulating and anti- inflammatory actions in experimental studies. In both bovine and porcine polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs; neutrophils), tulathromycin promotes apoptosis (programmed cell death) and the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. It lowers the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators leukotriene B4 and CXCL-8 and induces the production of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid lipoxin A4.
Pharmacokinetic particulars: In cattle, the pharmacokinetic profile of tulathromycin when administered as a single subcutaneous dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, was characterised by rapid and extensive absorption followed by high distribution and slow elimination. The maximum concentration (Cmax) in plasma was approximately 0.5 μg/ml; this was achieved approximately 30 minutes post-dosing (Tmax). Tulathromycin concentrations in lung homogenate were considerably higher than those in plasma. There is strong evidence of substantial accumulation of tulathromycin in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. However, the in vivo concentration of tulathromycin at the infection site of the lung is not known. Peak concentrations were followed by a slow decline in systemic exposure with an apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of 90 hours in plasma. Plasma protein binding was low, approximately 40%. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) determined after intravenous administration was 11 l/kg. The bioavailability of tulathromycin after subcutaneous administration in cattle was approximately 90%. In pigs, the pharmacokinetic profile of tulathromycin when administered as a single intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, was also characterised by rapid and extensive absorption followed by high distribution and slow elimination. The maximum concentration (Cmax) in plasma was approximately 0.6 μg/ml; this was achieved approximately 30 minutes post-dosing (Tmax). Tulathromycin concentrations in lung homogenate were considerably higher than those in plasma. There is strong evidence of substantial accumulation of tulathromycin in neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. However, the in vivo concentration of tulathromycin at the infection site of the lung is not known. Peak concentrations were followed by a slow decline in systemic exposure with an apparent elimination half-life (t1/2) of approximately 91 hours in plasma. Plasma protein binding was low, approximately 40%. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) determined after intravenous administration was 13.2 l/kg. The bioavailability of tulathromycin after intramuscular administration in pigs was approximately 88%. In sheep, the pharmacokinetic profile of tulathromycin, when administered as a single intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight, achieved a maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1.19 μg/ml in approximately 15 minutes (Tmax) post-dosing and had an elimination half-life (t1/2) of 69.7 hours. Plasma protein binding was approximately 60-75%. Following intravenous dosing the volume of distribution at steady-state (Vss) was 31.7 l/kg. The bioavailability of tulathromycin after intramuscular administration in sheep was 100%.