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Date: Sunday, May 22, 2022 1:49

Description: 2015-Elanco-logo
Telephone: 01256 353131 (24 hr response) Veterinary Technical Services
Release 2.26
Baytril 10% Oral Solution
 
Species: Chickens, Poultry, Rabbits, Turkeys
Therapeutic indication: Pharmaceuticals: Antimicrobials: Oral preparations: Others
Active ingredient: Enrofloxacin
Product:Baytril 10% Oral Solution
Product index: Baytril 10% Oral Solution
Poultry - meat: see notes
Poultry - eggs: see notes
Withdrawal notes: Not authorised for use in birds producing eggs for human consumption. Withdrawal period: Chickens: Meat and offal: 7 days. Turkeys: Meat and offal: 13 days. Rabbits: Meat and offal: 3 days.
Qualitative and quantitative composition
One ml of Baytril 10% Oral Solution contains:
Active Substance
Enrofloxacin 100 mg
Excipient(s)
Benzyl alcohol 14 mg
For the full list of excipients, see section Pharmaceutical Particulars
Pharmaceutical form
Solution for use in drinking water.
Clear yellowish solution.
Clinical particulars
Target species
Chicken, turkey and rabbit.
Indications for use, specifying the target species
Treatment of infections caused by the following bacteria susceptible to enrofloxacin:
Chickens
Mycoplasma gallisepticum,
Mycoplasma synoviae,
Avibacterium paragallinarum,
Pasteurella multocida,
Turkey
Mycoplasma gallisepticum,
Mycoplasma synoviae,
Pasteurella multocida,
Rabbits
For the treatment infectious diseases due to Pasteurella multocida and bacterial enteritis due to infection with E.coli.
Enrofloxacin should be used where clinical experience, supported where possible by sensitivity testing of the causal organism, indicates enrofloxacin as the active substance of choice.
Contraindications
Do not use for prophylaxis.
Do not use when resistance/ cross-resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is known to occur in the flock intended for treatment.
Do not use in the case of known hypersensitivity to the active substance, other (fluoro)quinolones or to any of the excipients.
Special warnings for each target species
Treatment of Mycoplasma spp infections may not eradicate the organism.
Special precautions for use
Special precautions for use in animals
Official and local antimicrobial policies should be taken into account when the product is used.
Fluoroquinolones should be reserved for the treatment of clinical conditions which have responded poorly, or are expected to respond poorly, to other classes of antimicrobials.
Since enrofloxacin was first authorised for use in poultry, there has been widespread reduction in susceptibility of E.coli to fluoroquinolones and emergence of resistant organisms. Resistance has also been reported in Mycoplasma synovia in the EU.
Whenever possible, fluoroquinolones should only be used based on susceptibility testing.
Use of the product deviating from the instructions given in the SPC may increase the prevalence of bacteria resistant to the fluoroquinolones and may decrease the effectiveness of treatment with other quinolones due to the potential for cross resistance.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the medicinal product to animals
Those with known hypersensitivity to (fluoro)quinolones should avoid contact with this product.
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Rinse any splashes from skin or eyes immediately with water.
Wash hands and exposed skin after use.
Do not eat, drink or smoke while using the product.
Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
None known.
Use during pregnancy, lactation or lay
Do not use in laying hens producing eggs for human consumption.
Do not administer to layer replacement birds within 14 days of coming into lay.
Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
In vitro,an antagonism was shown, when combining fluoroquinolones with bacteriostatic antimicrobial agents such as macrolides or tetracyclines and phenicols. The simultaneous application of substances containing aluminium or magnesium can impair the absorption of enrofloxacin.
Amount(s) to be administered and administration route
Chickens and turkeys
10 mg enrofloxacin/kg bodyweight per day for 3-5 consecutive days.
Treatment for 3-5 consecutive days; for 5 consecutive days in mixed infections and chronic progressive forms. If no clinical improvement is achieved within 2-3 days, alternative antimicrobial therapy should be considered based on susceptibility testing.
Via the drinking water. Always make sure that the entire dose offered has been consumed. The medicated water should be made up fresh each day just before it is offered to the animals. The drinking water must be medicated throughout the treatment period, and no other water source should be available. Determine the bodyweight of the birds as accurately as possible in order to avoid underdosing.
Use only fresh pre-solutions, prepared every day before start of treatment. Pumping systems should be checked constantly to assure proper medication. Empty the water system and fill it with medicated water before starting the treatment.
Calculate the daily quantity (ml) of Baytril 10% Oral Solution required for treatment period as follows:
Total number of birds x Average body weight in kg x 0.1= Total volume (ml) per day
Baytril 10% Oral Solution may be put directly into the header tank or introduced via a water proportioner pump.
Rabbits
10 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 5 consecutive days.
Calculate the daily quantity (ml) of Baytril 10% Oral Solution required for treatment period as follows:
Total number of rabbits x Average body weight in kg x 0.1= Total volume (ml) per day
Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary
No adverse clinical symptoms were observed in chickens and turkeys treated respectively with doses up to 10 and 6 times higher than the therapy dose.
The use of fluoroquinolones during the growth phase combined with a marked and prolonged increase in the intake of drinking water, and hence active ingredient, possibly due to high temperatures, may potentially be associated with damage of the articular cartilage.
Withdrawal period(s)
Chickens: Meat and offal: 7 days.
Turkeys: Meat and offal: 13 days.
Rabbits: Meat and offal: 3 days.
Not authorised for use in birds producing eggs for human consumption.
Do not administer to layer replacement birds within 14 days of coming into lay.
Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: quinolone and quinoxaline antibacterials, fluoroquinolones.
ATCvet Code QJ01MA90
Pharmacodynamic properties
Mode of action
Two enzymes essential in DNA replication and transcription, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, have been identified as the molecular targets of fluoroquinolones. They modulate the topological state of DNA through cleaving and resealing reactions. Initially, both strands of the DNA double helix are cleaved. Then, a distant segment of DNA is passed through this break before the strands are resealed. Target inhibition is caused by non-covalent binding of fluroquinolone molecules to an intermediate state in this sequence of reactions, in which DNA is cleaved, but both strands are retained covalently attached to the enzymes. Replication forks and translational complexes cannot proceed beyond such enzyme-DNA-fluroquinolone complexes, and inhibition of DNA and mRNA synthesis triggers events resulting in a rapid, drug concentration-dependant killing of pathogenic bacteria.
Antibacterial spectrum
Enrofloxacin is active against many Gram-negative bacteria, against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycoplasma spp.
In vitro susceptibility has been shown in strains of (i) Gram-negative species such as, Pasteurella multocida and Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum and (ii) Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. (See section Special precautions for use).
Types and mechanisms of resistance
Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported to arise from five sources, (i) point mutations in the genes encoding for DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV leading to alterations of the respective enzyme, (ii) alterations of drug permeability in Gram-negative bacteria, (iii) efflux mechanisms, (iv) plasmid mediated resistance and (v) gyrase protecting proteins. All mechanisms lead to a reduced susceptibility of the bacteria to fluoroquinolones. Cross-resistance within the fluoroquinolone class of antimicrobials is common.
Pharmacokinetic particulars
Enrofloxacin administered via drinking water to poultry is rapidly and very well absorbed with a bioavailability of approx. 90 %. Maximum plasma concentrations of 2 mg/L are reached within 1.5 hours after a single bolus dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight with a total systemic availability of 14.4 mg.hr/L. Enrofloxacin is eliminated from the body with a total body clearance of 10.3 ml/min.kg. If dosed as continuous drinking water medication (multiple dosing) steady-state concentrations of 0.5 mg (turkeys) to 0.8 mg (chicken) enrofloxacin per litre are achieved. A high mean volume of distribution (5 L/kg) indicated good tissue penetration of enrofloxacin. Concentrations in target tissues like lungs, liver, kidney, intestine and muscle tissue, exceed plasma concentrations by far. In poultry enrofloxacin is poorly metabolised to its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (approximately 5%). Enrofloxacin is eliminated from the body at a half-life of 6 hours. Protein binding in poultry is approximately 25%.
Pharmaceutical particulars
List of excipients
Benzyl alcohol
Potassium hydroxide
Purified water.
Incompatibilities
In the absence of compatibility studies, this veterinary medicinal product must not be mixed with other veterinary medicinal products.
Shelf-life
Shelf life of the veterinary medicinal product as packaged for sale: 4 years.
Shelf-life after first opening the immediate packaging: 12 weeks.
Shelf-life after dilution or reconstitution according to directions: 24 hours
Special precautions for storage
This veterinary medicinal product does not require any special storage conditions.
Nature and composition of immediate packaging
100 ml, 500 ml, and 1,000 ml high density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles with an HDPE insert and a polypropylene screw closure.
5,000 ml HDPE canister with an aluminium / HDPE screw closure.
The containers are provided with a graduated polypropylene measuring cup.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Special precautions for the disposal of unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from the use of such products, if appropriate
Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Marketing Authorisation Holder (if different from distributor)
N/A
Marketing Authorisation Number
Vm 00879/4115
Significant changes
Date of the first authorisation or date of renewal
11 November 1993
Date of revision of the text
October 2020
Any other information
Legal category
Legal category: POM-V
GTIN
GTIN description:Baytril 10% Oral Solution (100 ml)
GTIN:04007221027157
GTIN description:Baytril 10% Oral Solution (1 Litre)
GTIN:04007221027133