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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: quinolone and quinoxaline antibacterials, fluoroquinolones.
ATCvet Code QJ01MA90
Pharmacodynamic properties
Mode of action
Two enzymes essential in DNA replication and transcription, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, have been identified as the molecular targets of fluoroquinolones. They modulate the topological state of DNA through cleaving and resealing reactions. Initially, both strands of the DNA double helix are cleaved. Then, a distant segment of DNA is passed through this break before the strands are resealed. Target inhibition is caused by non-covalent binding of fluroquinolone molecules to an intermediate state in this sequence of reactions, in which DNA is cleaved, but both strands are retained covalently attached to the enzymes. Replication forks and translational complexes cannot proceed beyond such enzyme-DNA-fluroquinolone complexes, and inhibition of DNA and mRNA synthesis triggers events resulting in a rapid, drug concentration-dependant killing of pathogenic bacteria.
Antibacterial spectrum
Enrofloxacin is active against many Gram-negative bacteria, against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycoplasma spp.
In vitro susceptibility has been shown in strains of (i) Gram-negative species such as, Pasteurella multocida and Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum and (ii) Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. (See section Special precautions for use).
Types and mechanisms of resistance
Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been reported to arise from five sources, (i) point mutations in the genes encoding for DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV leading to alterations of the respective enzyme, (ii) alterations of drug permeability in Gram-negative bacteria, (iii) efflux mechanisms, (iv) plasmid mediated resistance and (v) gyrase protecting proteins. All mechanisms lead to a reduced susceptibility of the bacteria to fluoroquinolones. Cross-resistance within the fluoroquinolone class of antimicrobials is common.
Pharmacokinetic particulars
Enrofloxacin administered via drinking water to poultry is rapidly and very well absorbed with a bioavailability of approx. 90 %. Maximum plasma concentrations of 2 mg/L are reached within 1.5 hours after a single bolus dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight with a total systemic availability of 14.4 Enrofloxacin is eliminated from the body with a total body clearance of 10.3 ml/ If dosed as continuous drinking water medication (multiple dosing) steady-state concentrations of 0.5 mg (turkeys) to 0.8 mg (chicken) enrofloxacin per litre are achieved. A high mean volume of distribution (5 L/kg) indicated good tissue penetration of enrofloxacin. Concentrations in target tissues like lungs, liver, kidney, intestine and muscle tissue, exceed plasma concentrations by far. In poultry enrofloxacin is poorly metabolised to its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (approximately 5%). Enrofloxacin is eliminated from the body at a half-life of 6 hours. Protein binding in poultry is approximately 25%.