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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: antiparasitic agent, ATC vet code: QP53AC54
Advantix Spot-on is an ectoparasiticide for topical use containing imidacloprid and permethrin. This combination acts as an insecticide, acaricide and as a repellent.
Pharmacodynamic properties
Imidacloprid is an ectoparasiticide belonging to the chloronicotinyl group of compounds. Chemically, it can be classified as a chloronicotinyl nitroguanidine. Imidacloprid is effective against adult fleas and larval flea stages. In addition to the adulticide flea efficacy of imidacloprid, a larvicidal flea efficacy in the surroundings of the treated pet has been demonstrated. Larval stages in the dog`s immediate surroundings are killed following contact with a treated animal. It has a high affinity for the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptors in the post-synaptic region of the central nervous system (CNS) in insects. The ensuing inhibition of cholinergic transmission in insects results in paralysis and death of the parasite.
Permethrin belongs to the type I class of pyrethroid acaricides and insecticides and also acts as repellent. Pyrethroids affect the voltage-gated sodium channels in vertebrates and non-vertebrates. Pyrethroids are so called “open channel blockers” affecting the sodium channel by slowing both the activation and the inactivation properties thus leading to hyperexcitability and death of the parasite.
In the combination of both substances, it has been shown Imidacloprid functions as the activator of arthropod ganglion and therefore increases the efficacy of permethrin.
The product provides repellent (anti-feeding) activity against ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes, thus preventing the repelled parasites from taking a blood meal and thus reducing the risk of Canine Vector-Borne Disease (CVBD) transmission (e.g. borreliosis, rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis). However, there may be an attachment of single ticks or bites by single sand flies or mosquitoes. For this reason, a transmission of infectious diseases by these parasites cannot be completely excluded if conditions are unfavourable. The product provides repellent (anti-feeding) activity against stable flies thereby assisting in the prevention of fly-bite dermatitis.
The product provides repellent activity (anti-feeding activity) against Phlebotomus perniciosus (> 80% for 3 weeks), mosquitoes and ticks. Field data from an endemic area showed that the product indirectly reduces the risk of transmission of Leishmania infantum from infected sandflies (Phlebotomus perniciosus) for up to 3 weeks, thereby reducing the risk of canine leishmaniosis in treated dogs.
Pharmacokinetic particulars
The product is indicated for dermal administration. Following topical application in dogs, the solution rapidly distributes over the body surface of the animal. Both active substances remain detectable on the skin and hair of the treated animal for 4 weeks.
Acute dermal studies in the rat and target animal, overdose and serum kinetic studies have established that systemic absorption of both active substances after application on intact skin is low, transient and not relevant for the clinical efficacy.
Environmental properties
The product should not be allowed to enter water courses as this may be dangerous for fish and aquatic organisms. For treated dogs, please see section Special precautions for use.
Permethrin containing products are toxic to honey bees.