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Further information
The product contains anthelmintics active against roundworms and tapeworms. The product contains three active substances:
1) Febantel, 2) Pyrantel embonate (pamoate) and 3) Praziquantel, a partially hydrogenated pyrazinoisoquinoline derivative used widely as an anthelmintic for both human and veterinary use. ATC Vet Code: QP52AC55
In this fixed combination product pyrantel and febantel act synergistically against all relevant nematodes (ascarids, hookworms and whipworms) in dogs. In particular, the activity spectrum covers Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis.
The spectrum of activity of praziquantel covers all important cestode species in dogs, in particular all Taenia spp, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Praziquantel acts against adult and immature forms of these parasites.
Pyrantel acts as a cholinergic agonist. Its mode of action is to stimulate nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the parasite, induce spastic paralysis and thereby allow removal from the gastro-intestinal (GI) system by peristalsis.
Within the mammalian system febantel undergoes ring closure forming fenbendazole and oxfendazole. It is these chemical entities which exert the anthelmintic effect by inhibition of tubulin polymerization. Formation of microtubules is thereby prevented, resulting in disruption to structures vital to the normal functioning of the helminth. Glucose uptake, in particular, is affected, leading to a depletion in cell ATP. The parasite dies upon exhaustion of its energy reserves, which occurs 2-3 days later.
Praziquantel is very rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the parasite. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that praziquantel causes severe damage to the parasite integument, resulting in contraction and paralysis. There is an almost instantaneous tetanic contraction of the parasite musculature and a rapid vacuolisation of the syncytial tegument. This rapid contraction has been explained by changes in divalent cation fluxes, especially calcium.
Since it contains praziquantel, the product is effective against Echinococcus multilocularis which does not occur in the UK but is becoming more common in some European countries.
Fleas serve as intermediate hosts for one common type of tapeworm - Dipylidium caninum. Tapeworm infection is certain to re-occur unless control of intermediate hosts such as fleas, mice etc. is undertaken.