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Clinical particulars
Target species
Cattle, horses, dogs and cats.
Indications for use
This product is administered by intravenous infusion for the treatment of dehydration in cattle, horses, dogs and cats. It may be used to correct hypovolaemia resulting from shock or gastrointestinal disease (especially where metabolic alkalosis is present, e.g. in cases of sustained vomiting or abomasal disorders in cattle). It may be administered to meet normal fluid and electrolyte requirements when fluids cannot be given orally.
Do not use in animals with:
- hypernatraemia
- hyperchloraemia
- hyperhydration
- oedema (hepatic, renal, or cardiac)
Special precautions for use in animals
Do not use unless the solution is clear, free from visible particles and the container is undamaged. Sodium overload may occur in animals with cardiac or renal impairment. It should be noted that sodium excretion may be impaired post-surgery/trauma.
A risk of thrombosis with intravenous infusion should be considered.
Maintain aseptic precautions.
The product should be warmed to approximately 37°C prior to the administration of large volumes, or if the administration rate is high, in order to avoid hypothermia.
Use with caution in animals with hypokalaemia.
Serum electrolyte levels, water and acid-base balance and the clinical condition of the animal should be closely monitored during the treatment in order to prevent overdose, particularly in cases of renal or metabolic changes.
This product should not be used for longer than is necessary to correct and sustain circulating volume. This solution does not contain the appropriate electrolyte balance for longer term maintenance fluid administration.
Inappropriate/excessive use may worsen or create a metabolic acidosis.
Use during pregnancy and lactation
The safety of the veterinary medicinal product has not been established during pregnancy and lactation. Use only accordingly to the benefit/risk assessment by the responsible veterinarian.
It is recommended to take appropriate precautions in animals receiving corticosteroids or corticotrophins to prevent high blood pressure and excessive fluid retention during administration of large volumes.
Concomitant administration of colloids requires a dose reduction.
Amounts to be administered and administration route
Intravenous use.
The volume and rate of infusion will depend upon the clinical condition, existing deficits of the animal, maintenance needs and continuing losses.
Generally aim to correct hypovolaemia by 50% initially (ideally over 6 hours but faster if necessary) and reassess by clinical examination.
Deficits are generally in the range of 50 ml/kg (mild) to 150 ml/kg (severe). An infusion rate of 15 ml/kg/hour is recommended in the absence of shock (range 5-75 ml/kg/hour).
In shock, high initial infusion rates, up to 90 ml/kg/hour, are needed. High infusion rates should not be continued for longer than 1 hour unless urine output is restored. The maximum infusion rate should be decreased in the presence of cardiac, renal and pulmonary disease.
It is recommended to maintain a serum sodium less than or equal to 130 mEq/l. In the presence of volume overload signs, treatment should involve administering diuretics and stopping the infusion.
Overdose may lead to hypernatraemia, hyperchloraemia, hypokalaemia, cardiac decompensation, hyperhydration and metabolic acidosis.
Clinical signs of excessive overdose include restlessness, hypersalivation, shivering, tachycardia, serous nasal discharge, tachypnoea, moist lung sounds, coughing, protrusion of the eye from the orbit, widespread oedema, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Long-term infusion may cause electrolyte imbalance. Saline solution is not balanced and it may cause acidaemia because it will increase renal elimination of bicarbonate. Prolonged use may cause hypokalaemia.
Withdrawal period
Meat and offal: zero days; Milk: zero hours.