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Pharmacological particulars
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Electrolytes
ATCvet code: QB05BB01
Pharmacodynamic properties
Sodium chloride and water are normal constituents of the plasma of animals.
Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular space and regulates the size of this space together with other anions.
The sodium content and the fluid homeostasis of the body are closely related. Each deviation of the plasma sodium concentration from the physiological one simultaneously affects the fluid status of the body.
An increase in the sodium content of the body also means reduction of the body's free water content independent of the serum osmolarity.
A 0.9 per cent sodium chloride solution has the same osmolarity as plasma. Administration of this solution primarily leads to a replenishment of the interstitial space which is about 2/3 of the entire extracellular space. Only 1/3 of the administered volume remains in the intravascular space.
Pharmacokinetic properties
Sodium chloride administered by the intravenous route quickly joins the normal distribution and metabolism of sodium chloride and water, in the intracellular and extracellular spaces.
Sodium and chloride are normal components of the body and their balance is maintained by the kidneys. The sodium level of the veterinary medicinal product is similar to the physiological level in the serum.
The kidneys are the major regulator of the sodium and water balance. In cooperation with the hormonal control mechanisms (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, antidiuretic hormone), the kidneys are primarily responsible for the maintenance of a constant volume of the extracellular space and regulation of its fluid composition.
Chloride is exchanged for hydrogen carbonate in the tubule system. Thus, it is involved in the regulation of the acid-base balance.